Electric bike electronic accessories FAQs
Jan 29, 2023
The motor and power line use 1.55M2. If the line is too long, the efficiency will be low, and the voltage drop on the line is too large, and it may even easily lead to undervoltage, so the shorter and thicker the better.
2. What are the requirements for the relative thickness of the input and output of the controller? What are the consequences of being too careful?
The power of the controller is related to the current limit value. If the input and output lines are too thin, it will cause unnecessary power consumption, and some can reach 3-4V voltage drop, then the mileage of the vehicle will be significantly shortened, and the guide will be too thin. It will affect the discharge performance of the battery and enter the undervoltage state prematurely.
3. What are the characteristics of Hall brake (electronic brake lever)?
Magnetic steel is installed on the brake lever, and the switch-type Hall element on the brake seat induces the mechanical action when the brake is pinched into an electrical signal that the controller can process. The advantages are: dustproof, waterproof, not afraid of wear and tear.
4. What is a Hall element?
The Hall effect is named after the physicist Edwin Hall. In 1879, Hall discovered that when a magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the current direction of an energized conductor or semiconductor, an induced voltage appears in the direction perpendicular to the current and magnetic field. This effect is called the Hall effect. The magnetic induction element made by Hall effect is called Hall element.
5. What are the characteristics of the Hall handle?
The rotation of the handle drives the internal magnetic steel of the handle to rotate, causing a change in the magnetic field strength, and the linear Hall element is used to obtain a linear voltage change signal (but its linearity is not very ideal). The advantages are: waterproof, dustproof, not afraid of wear and tear.
6. There are two wires from the handle of some controllers. What are the two wires? What's the point? What are the pros and cons?
It is the speed control signal line and the 5V line; the ground line is taken from the vehicle line. But doing so is not good for the stability of the whole vehicle, and the overall circuit layout is also not good. The purpose of doing this is only to save a line.
7. There are three lead wires in the Hall handle, how are they defined?
There are three lead wires in the Hall handlebar: green (signal), red (power supply), and yellow (ground wire). The standard arrangement order of the electric vehicle company's connectors is 1 signal, 2 power supply, and 3 ground wire.
8. There are long and short lines for the Hall handle, what is the difference?
There are long wires (1200mm) and short wires (450mm) for the Hall switch, which are used with different models and controllers. The short wires are generally TJC3-3PIN white plugs inserted into the display circuit board, and the long wires are generally SM-3PIN. The black pin plug is directly connected to the controller.
9. What is the function of locking the handle?
A mechanical switch button is added to the handlebar for locking the handlebar. The intelligent controller uses this button as a mode switching button for 1:1 power assist, electric, fixed speed, and fault self-checking mode switching, making the car more functional. Rich.
10. Can the front handle and reverse handle be changed?
Yes, the forward handle (1.0-4.2V) and the reverse handle (4.2-1.0V) can be changed by yourself; open the handle, turn the two magnets 180 degrees, and then install them, the forward handle and reverse handle can be converted to each other.
11. What will happen if the 4.2V-1.0V transfer handle (reverse handle) is connected to the 1.0-4.2V forward handle controller?
Once the power is turned on, the motor of the electric vehicle will rotate at the highest speed, and the speed will slow down when the handle is turned, and the motor will stop rotating when the rotation angle of the handle reaches the maximum.
12. What is the difference between various brake levers?
The mechanical brake lever is a kind of mechanical switch, so there are two leads. When not braking, it can be divided into open and closed, so it is called normally open and normally closed. A large number of mechanical normally open brake levers are used in the market, and only a few mechanical normally closed brake levers are used. It is an incompatible product in the market. A large number of electronic normal high brake levers are used in the market, and only a few customers use electronic normal low brake levers. Both the mechanical normally open brake lever and the electronic normally high brake lever can work directly in parallel with the left and right brake levers, while the mechanical normally closed brake lever works in series, and the electronic normally low brake lever works with an additional circuit. The disadvantage of the mechanical brake lever is that it has poor waterproof performance, and it is prone to poor contact after long-term use, and its reliability is low, but the price is cheap; the electronic brake lever has good waterproof performance, and there is no problem of poor contact after long-term use, but the price is slightly higher.
13. What is the power supply voltage range of the electronic brake lever?
The power supply voltage range of the electronic brake lever is 4.5V-24V, which is generally divided into 5V, 12V, and 15V according to different controllers. The electronic brake lever can work normally under these three voltages, which will not affect its working performance (the same reason without The same goes for the Hall element in the brush motor).
14. What is the power consumption of the general electronic brake lever?
Generally, the power consumption of the electronic brake lever is about 10mA.
15. What are the types of brake levers?
Mechanical normally open, mechanical normally closed, electronic normally high, electronic normally low. At present, the mainstream products in the market are mechanical normally open (80%) and electronic normally high (20%), and others are basically not used.
16. What is the function of the power-off brake lever?
When braking, the controller detects the braking signal and cuts off the power supply of the motor no matter what state the handlebar is in.
17. The electric vehicle speed control handle is realized by using linear Hall elements, and a large number of Hall elements are used as sensors in electric bicycles. What does the Hall elements refer to here?
The Hall element is a kind of magnetic sensor. It is divided into switch type Hall and linear Hall. The principle is briefly described as follows: A. Switch type Hall: When the sensitive surface has a magnetic field, the component output is low, and when there is no magnetic field, the output is high. , The power supply voltage is 4.5V-24V, and the output circuit is open collector. B. Linear Hall, when the magnetic field strength of the sensitive surface of the element changes, its output changes continuously and linearly from 1.0V to 4.2V (if the power supply is 5V).
18. What does sensor mean?
A device that converts the motion (such as rotation, displacement, etc.) or changes (such as pressure, light, etc.) of mechanical parts into electrical signals. Common sensors on electric vehicles include: micro switches in the brake handle, brushless motors and Hall elements inside the handle, devices for detecting tissue size, Hall elements for detecting the speed of the vehicle, etc.
19. What is the principle and installation method of the power assist sensor?
The power sensor adopts Hall element, fixed on the right central shaft with a bracket, and the central shaft is equipped with a magnetic ring, and the five magnetic steels on the magnetic ring make the Hall element output five pulses when the central shaft rotates once, and the intelligent controller detects After that, the 1:1 assist torque can be calculated to supply power to the motor. The SA type assist sensor of the electric vehicle company can identify the forward and backward rotation of the center shaft. When a person pushes the cart backwards, power is generated, and the cart rushes forward, causing danger.
20. What are the main points to pay attention to during the installation of the power assist sensor?
Pay attention to the installation direction of the magnetic ring, and the distance between the magnetic ring and the sensor should be between 2-5mm.
21. When the two wheels of the electric vehicle follow the rotation during electric riding, is there any power assist at this time?
Without power assist, in the electric state, the handle is at a high potential, and the electric vehicle will not switch to the power assist state.
22. How to find the reason if the intelligent controller does not help?
Check whether the power line, ground wire, signal line of the power sensor line and the controller are reliably connected, check whether the distance between the magnetic ring and the Hall element is between 2-4mm, and finally replace the sensor test.
23. How many kinds of speed display meters are used in electric mopeds? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
The common quick-display meters on the market can be roughly divided into the following three types: A, LED electronic meters. This meter uses light-emitting diodes to display the virtual speed, which has the advantage of being simple and economical, but in fact it only shows the voltage of the handle and cannot truly display the current speed. B. Mechanical pulse meter, this kind of meter is a kind of meter that determines the speed by collecting the frequency of the Hall signal. This kind of meter is specially matched with the brushless controller, and the speed indicated by it and The number of revolutions of the motor is strictly proportional to the speed at which people ride. It can indicate the speed very well, but its price is relatively high. C. Mechanical voltage pointer gauge head, in essence, this kind of gauge head is a voltmeter. A voltage is given to the meter head through the controller (it may be proportional to the speed or it may not be proportional to the speed), so that the speed is indicated by the pointer. But generally the linearity of this meter is not good. But at present, this kind of head is used more in the market.
24. Why do some lights on the smart panel go out when the smart controller is started? Does this have something to do with the controller?
The display panel of the intelligent controller uses light-emitting diodes to indicate the battery power. This part of the function is only used to detect changes in battery power. If the battery power is lower than the set value of a certain light-emitting diode, the light-emitting diode will go out and the power display Part of the power is taken directly from the battery and has nothing to do with the controller. However, a small number of customers report that sometimes when the electric moped is just started, one or two power indicator lights on the display panel will go out. In the normal driving of the electric vehicle, one or two diodes of the latter light up again. Many users wonder if there is something wrong with the controller, but this is completely normal. Because the current of the motor is very large when the load is started, it is almost at the current limit of the controller. If the internal resistance of the battery is too large or the large current cross-flow characteristics are not good, the voltage of the battery will drop by 3-5 volts during the start-up period. even more. If the voltage of the battery is 39v and the voltage drops to 35V when the load of the electric vehicle is started, only the display panel of the controller will quickly capture this information, and when it is reflected on the display panel, two power indicator lights will be off, because the electric vehicle The first light-emitting diode of the battery indicator defined by the car company is off when the battery voltage is lower than 36V, and the second is off when the battery voltage is lower than 36V. When starting to normal riding state, due to the small current required by the motor and the small power supply current of the battery during normal riding, its brother Nanya will return to about 39V, so the power indicator diode will light up again.
25. What do battery brakes, battery brakes and ABS brakes refer to? How do electric vehicle companies view this?
Now on the labels of many brushless controllers, terms such as electromagnetic brake, electromagnetic brake, energy-consumption braking, and ABS brake can be seen. What is it all about?
In fact, whether the so-called electromagnetic brake or energy-consumption braking is good, they are all about the brushless controller. In principle, it is the brake implementation. Several power tubes in the controller are in the open state. , so that the current generated by the rotation of the motor generates torque, which hinders the further rotation of the motor, and converts the kinetic energy of the system (people and vehicles) into heat energy of the motor and the controller to be consumed. In fact, this is not good for the controller and will damage the power Regardless of the service life of the controller, the controller of the electric vehicle company does not advocate this function. Because one function has no practical significance, as an electric bicycle, due to its speed limit, its own mechanical brake system and the brake power-off function of the controller have met the requirements of safety performance, so this function is superfluous, and other The thermal damage to the controller and the motor is very large, which reduces the reliability of the vehicle. As for ABS, it is an anti-lock braking system. It is an excellent braking system that uses the characteristic that the maximum static friction between the tire and the ground is greater than the sliding friction. Theoretically, this function can be made from the controller. It is almost impossible at this time. Looking at the current electric bicycle controllers in the domestic market, none of them really have this function. If the label indicates this feature it may be the automatic way mentioned above or not at all!